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# 3(12) 2013: The Limits of Subjectivity
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Russia, Moskow.
Moscow State University of Psychology & Education.
Head of Laboratory on Problems of Socio-Cultural Rehabilitation
of Persons with Disabilities. PhD.

Becoming Human as the Embodiment of Subjectivity in Representations of the Other: Stating the Problem

In the article, we consider the opportunity to understand subjectivity as the essential characteristic of an individual, in spite of the efforts made by contemporary philosophy to deontologize and deconstruct the concept. The starting point of the analysis is the idea that these efforts are constructed upon the concept of the relationship between the individual and the order of his relations with the world. This relationship rests upon the critique of classical philosophical metaphysics, based on, schematically speaking, the primordial rationality of being and considering subjectivity as its epiphenomenon. Overcoming this idea or thesis from a critical point of view was initiated by Kant in his concept of the finite mind. Besides the ways of breaking with the notion of fundamental rationality of being in post-Kantian philosophy, as shown in particular by A.Reno, proceeded from prevailed individualism, on the basis of empirical and nihilistic interpretation of monadological ontologies of Early modern Europe. In the development of monadological individualism, the connection between the individual monad and rationality of being was broken, and the basic principle in this approach is the absolute priority of the individual's authenticity as regards social conventions. Such a statement of question was a reaction to the absolutism of an over-personal rationality, which is a traditional part of European culture. The article discusses the possibilities of considering human subjectivity as the creature that is final, becoming, embodied and opened in its existence to being, regarded as radically different. In this consideration of subjectivity, we also find the place of the problem of representation, and the analysis of the human being as a border.

Key words: subjectivity, individualism, monadology, rationality of being, social constructionism, the embodiment of the human being, openness, representation


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  3. Mihajlov F. T. Samoopredelenie kul'tury. Filosofskij poisk. M., 2003.
  4. Chernjak L. S. Vechnost' i vremja. M.; SPb., 2012.
  5. Rumjancev O. K. Chast' II. Vosproizvedenie i konstruirovanie v evropejskoj mysli. // Rumjancev O. K., Turovskij M. B., Chernjak L. S., Shemanov A. Ju. Metamorfozy razuma v evropejskoj kul'ture. M., 2010. S. 289–400.
  6. Gusserl' Je. Krizis evropejskih nauk i transcendental'naja fenomenologija. Vvedenie v fenomenologicheskuju filosofiju. SPb., 2004. S. 19).
  7. Sheler M. Polozhenie cheloveka v Kosmose // Sheler M. Izbrannye proizvedenija. M., 1994. S. 133–134).
  8. Goodley D., Runswick‐Cole K. Len Barton, inclusion and critical disability studies: theorising disabled childhoods. // International Studies in Sociology of Education. 2010. V. 20, № 4. P. 273–290.
  9. Solov'eva A. N. Jetnichnost' i kul'tura: Problemy diskurs-analiza. Arhangel'sk, 2009. 231 s.; Shapinskaja E. N. Obraz Drugogo v tekstah kul'tury. M., 2012. 216 s.
  10. Paliocosta P., Blandford S., Inclusion in school: a policy, ideology or lived experience? Similar findings in diverse school cultures //Support for Learning. 2010. V. 25. № 4. P. 179.
  11. Anastasiou D. & Kauffmann J. M. A Social Constructionist Approach to Disability: Implications for Special Education. // Exceptional Children. 2011. V. 77. № 3. P. 367–384.
  12. Berger P., Lukman T. Social'noe konstruirovanie real'nosti. Traktat po sociologii znanija. M., 1995. S. 80–209.
  13. Chernjak L. S. Organicheskoe kak analogija razumnogo. // Voprosy filosofii. 1997, №1.
  14. Riker P. Zhivaja metafora. // Teorija metafory. M., 1990. S. 450–453.
  15. Shemanov A. Ju. Samoidentifikacija cheloveka v sovremennoj kul'ture i problema stanovlenija sub#ektivnosti. // Filosofskie nauki. 2012, №11. S. 106–118.
  16. Val'denfel's B. Motiv chuzhogo. Minsk, 1999.
  17. Levinas Je. Vremja i drugoj. Gumanizm drugogo cheloveka. SPb., 1998; Levinas Je. Izbrannoe. Total'nost' i beskonechnoe. M. SPb., 2001.
  18. Shemanov A. Ju. Opyt nevladenija soboj kak istoricheskaja pochva nauki (K voprosu o meste konceptov v obrazovanii nauchnyh ponjatij). // Kul'turologija: ot proshlogo k budushhemu. K 70-letiju Rossijskogo instituta kul'turologii. RIK MK RF, M., 2002. S. 157–171.
  19. Shemanov A. Ju. Samoidentifikacija cheloveka i kul'tura. Monografija. M., 2007. S. 150–155.
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Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research, chief researcher.

The Redundancy of the Individual as a Condition of one's Openness to Boundaries

The hypothesis of the article states that originally each person had a sense of boundless openness (as opposed to animals), which may be assigned only as a result of his efforts. This is because openness is presented to Man in the form of uncertainty as redundancy, and its transformation into openness implies the representation shown as the viability of human exploration of the stages of his ontogenesis. This is the effort required to obtain the gift. Such a gift can be understood as that which is imposed on the person, but without its presence, absolute otherness, as an appeal to the individual to be open.

Key words: subjectivity, openness, uncertainty as redundancy, absolute otherness, culture-free determination, freedom


  1. Chernjak. Vnenahodimost' v dialogike: samodeterminacija mysli i determinacii vnemyslennye // Vladimir Solomonovich Bibler. M., 2009. S. 10–128.
  2. Mihalov F. T. Obrazovanie filosofa // Mihajlov F. T. Izbrannoe M., 200.
  3. Rudkevich L. A. Jepohal'nye izmenenija cheloveka na sovremennom jetape i pedagogicheskie innovacii // Professional'noe internet-izdanie Psihologicheskaja gazeta 29. 11. 2006 Sajt:
  4. Chernjak L. S. Vechnost' i vremja SPb., 2012.
  5. Averincev S. S. Pojetika rannevizantijskoj literatury M., 1977.
  6. Turovskij M. B. Kurs lekcij po istorii filosofii (arhiv, kotoryj my gotovim k pechati)
  7. Chernjak L. S. Vremja i vechnost' SPb., 2012.
  8. Chernjak L. S. Ocherk vtoroj. Kant: razum — hudozhestvennyj opyt — jempiricheskoe // Metamorfozy razuma v evropejskoj kul'ture M., 2010 S. 68–92
  9. Kolesnikov A. S. Glava 5. Problema sub#ektivnosti v poststrukturalizme // Kolesnikov A. S. Stavcev S. N. Formy sub#ektivnosti v filosofskoj kul'ture XX veka SPb., 2000.
  10. Shemanov A. Ju. Samoidentifikacija cheloveka v sovremennoj kul'ture i problema stanovlenija sub#ektivnosti. // Filosofskie nauki. 2012, №11. S. 106–118.
  11. Hajdegger M. Bytie i vremja M., 1977.
  12. Chernjak L. S. Chast' I Nachala teleologii kul'tury // Metamorfozy razuma v evropejskoj kul'ture M., 2010.
  13. Turovskij M. B. O zavisimosti kul'tury ot filosofii // Turovskij M. B. Filosofskie osnovanija kul'turologii. M., 1997. S. 32
  14. Chernjak L. S. Zhizn' revnuet mudrosti // Antropologija sub#ektivnosti i mir sovremennoj kommunikacii M., 2010. S. 280–286.
  15. Shemanov A. Ju. Problema sub#ektivnosti cheloveka i kul'turnaja reprezentacija // Antropologija tvorcheskoj sub#ektivnosti i kreativnosti SPb., 2013 S. 30–31
  16. Rumjancev O. K. Istorija kak antropogenez // Logos zhivogo i germenevtika telesnosti M., 2005 S. 118–173; Mehanizm preemstvennosti: nachalo istorii kul'tury vsegda «eshhe tol'ko» voznikaet // Sud'ba evropejskogo proekta vremeni M., 2009 S. 423–470
  17. Manokin M. A. Juvenilizacija sovremennogo obshhestva: kul'turologicheskie aspekty // Zhurnal: Obshhestvo. Sreda. Razvitie (Terra Humana) №3 2012.
  18. Sheler M. Polozhenie cheloveka v kosmose // Problema cheloveka v zapadnoj filosofii M., 1988.
  19. Agamben D. Otkrytoe M., 2012. S. 69–86
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Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University. Faculty of Philosophy.
PhD, Professor.

Transformation of Subjectivity

The thesis about the "death of the subject" is criticized and the various forms of the revival of the concept of subjectivity in modern philosophy are considered. The variety of forms and representations in a modern community are investigated. In classical philosophy, the center of the subject was reason.
There is a radical transformation in regard to the engineering of the subjects' formation. This article is devoted to their research.

Key words: soul, unity, individuality, collective, loneliness, sympathy, boredom, subjectivity, body


  1. Sheler M. Chelovek i istorija. // Izbrannye Proizvedenija. / M. Sheler / M: «Gnozis». 1994. S. 226
  2. Aristotel'. Ob istolkovanii. Sochinenija v chetyreh tomah. / Aristotel' / M: «Mysl'». 1978. S. 93.
  3. Apel' K-O. Transformacija filosofii. / K.-O. Apel' / M.: «Logos», 2001. S. 242.
  4. Fuko M. Germenevtika sub#ekta. / M. Fuko / SPb., 2007. S.146.
  5. Abaev N. V. Chan'-buddizm i kul'turno-psihologicheskie tradicii v srednevekovom Kitae. / N.V. Abaev / Novosibirsk. 1989.
  6. Frejd Z. Ja i Ono. / Z. Frejd / Tbilisi. 1991. T. 2. S. 72.
  7. Sloterdajk P. Puzyri. Sfery I. / P. Sloterdajk / SPb., 2005.
  8. Luhmann N. Passion. / N. Luhmann / Fr. am Main, 1993.
  9. Luman N. Media kommunikacii. / N. Luman / M., 2005.
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Russia, Moscow.
The Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
Researcher, PhD in philosophy.

Encountering Phenomenon: Realization and De-realization: On Merab Mamardashvili's phenomenology

Mamardashvili frequently referred to Edmund Husserl's phenomenology, but interpreted it in his own way. He presented his own phenomenology projects based on Kant's practical philosophy and Marx's analyses of mind. I observe two principle concepts of Mamardashvili's philosophy — that of phenomenon and symbol — and suggest the functional identity of each. These are a sort of media between the individual and the deep immanent source of his/ her personal being.

Key words: Merab Mamardashvili, phenomenon, phenomenology, symbol, Edmund Husserl, phenomenological reduction, epoch, Erfüllung, realization, Immanuel Kant, temporality


  1. Mamardashvili M. Fenomenologija — soputstvujushhij moment vsjakoj filosofii/ / M. Mamardashvili / Mamardashvili M. Kak ja ponimaju filosofiju. M. 1992. S. 100
  2. Kant I. Religija v predelah tol'ko razuma./ I. Kant / Kant I., Traktaty. Spb., 1996. S. 277.
  3. Kalinichenko V. Ponjatija «klassicheskogo» i «neklassicheskogo» v filosofii M. K. Mamardashvili/ V. Kalinichenko // Vstrecha s Dekartom. M.:1996. S. 57
  4. Mamardashvili M. Prevrashhennye formy (o neobhodimosti irracional'nyh vyrazhenij) / M. Mamardashvili // Mamardashvili M. Kak ja ponimaju filosofiju. M. 1992. S. 281.
  5. Mamardashvili M. Analiz soznanija v rabotah Marksa / M. Mamardashvili. // Mamardashvili M. Forma i soderzhanie myshlenija. M.: 2011. S. 226.
  6. Mamardashvili M. Literaturnaja kritika kak akt chtenija / M. Mamardashvili // Mamardashvili M. Kak ja ponimaju filosofiju. M.: 1992. S. 160–161.
  7. Mamardashvili M. K. Ocherk sovremennoj evropejskoj filosofii. / M. Mamardashvili / M.: Progress-Tradicija, 2010. S. 237-239
  8. Husserl E. Logische Untersuchungen. II. Band, 2 Teil. / E. Husserl / Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1922. S. 130.
  9. Mamardashvili M., Pjatigorskij A. Simvol i soznanie. / M. Mamardashvili, A, Pjatigorskij / M.: Progress-tradicija, 2009. S. 73.
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Russia, Moscow.
State Medical and Stomach University.

Subjectivity: The Boundary as One's Own and Owner of the Boundary

In the paper, the problem of subjectivity is considered through the "own" concept. It's assumed that in analyze of representation of boundaries stated by subject and searching the reference of "boundary`s own" phrase understanding can be reached. By the way, the attempt to bring together both contexts leads to a paradoxical necessity of self-outstanding beyond subject and being relationship. It supposed that approaching to a comprehension provides by performative idea.

Key words: subjectivity, boundary, own


  1. Aristotel'. Metafizika. M.: Jeksmo, 2006. 608 s.
  2. Rumjancev, O.K. Vosproizvedenie i konstruirovanie v evropejskoj mysli // Me-tamorfozy razuma v evropejskoj kul'ture. M.: Progress-Tradicija. 2010. 648 s.
  3. Hajdegger, M. Vremja i bytie // Hajdegger, M. Razgovor na proselochnoj doroge. M.: Vyssh. shk., 1991. 192 s.
  4. Avgustin Blazhennyj. O grade Bozhiem. Mn.: Harvest, M.: AST, 2000. 1296 s.
  5. Bibihin, V. V. Jazyk filosofii. M.: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul'tury, 2002. 416 s.
  6. Plotin. Pervaja jenneada. SPb.: Izdatel'stvo «Olega Abyshko», 2004. 320 s.
  7. Derrida, Zh. Pis'mo i razlichie. SPb.: Akademicheskij proekt, 2000. 432 s.
  8. Derrida, Zh. Golos i fenomen. I drugie raboty po teorii znaka Gusserlja. SPb.: Aletejja, 1999. 208s.
  9. Gumbreht, H. G. Proizvodstvo prisutstvija: Chego ne mozhet peredat' znachenie. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2006. 184 s.
  10. Agamben, Dzh. Otkrytoe. M.: RGGU, 2012. 112 s.
  11. Rej, Zh.-M. Smert', Bataj i zhertvoprinoshenie // Predel'nyj Bataj: Sb. statej. Izd-vo S.-Peterb. un-ta, 2006. 298 s.
  12. Hajdegger, M. Vvedenie v metafiziku. SPb.: «NOU: «Vysshaja religiozno-filosofskaja shkola», 1998. 301 s.
  13. Fuko, M. Nicshe. Frejd. Marks. //
  14. Plotin. Tret'ja jenneada. SPb.: Izdatel'stvo «Olega Abyshko», 2004. 480 s.
  15. Hajdegger, M. Bytie i vremja. M.: Ad Marginem, 1997. 451 s.
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Russia, St. Petersburg.
National Research University High School Economics.
Professor Dept. Applied Political Theory, PhD, professor.

Subjectivity and Post-Secular Contemporarity: A new Transcendence or the Fractality of a "Flat" World?

Modern mass society is imminent in the world. This self-sufficiency is fraught with mixed consequences: (1) the prospect of total manipulation; (2) the prospect of the rise of fundamentalism (the New Age, the Islamic "renaissance", the activation of the Russian Orthodox Church); (3) leftist revolutionarism in contemporary art, which relates to socialization through provocation, and the testing of the social norm. In all three cases, it is about going beyond the imminent boundaries. It appears that sophisticated media manipulation is the only alternative for goshistic revolutionarism and new fundamentalism.
The post-secularistic dilemma is, in fact, the present stage of confrontational realism (Platonism) and nominalism. An alternative to this confrontation is conceptualism, which is not a hard "either-or", and attempts to comprehend the infinite through the finite, to build the model, while at the same time, attempt to solve problems.
Distrust ... Horror ... Protests in art ... The weakness of the bourgeois (the public) in politics and the arts ... What can we expect? The new extension of imminence ... Widening the circle of cause and effect ... New rationalism ... This involves understanding and accepting any new source bases, an ontological assumptions of things ... And this means the simultaneous opening of new transcendent horizons. All of the above leads to the conclusion that the present — especially in terms of the Russian situation — is dealing with a serious challenge to civilization, the answer to which involves a very subtle social engineering, not to mention the need for a clear understanding of situations, problems and perspectives.

Key words: enlightenment, freedom, immanence, liberalism, modernity, post-secularity, rationality, secularism, society, subjectivity, transcendence


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  6. Kyrlezhev A. Postsekuljarnoe: kratkaja interpretacija. // Logos. 2001, № 3 (82). C. 103–108.
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  10. Tul'chinskij G. L. Massovaja kul'tura kak voploshhenie gumanizma Prosveshhenija, ili Pochemu rossijskoe obshhestvo samoe massovoe. // Filosofskie nauki. 2008, № 10. C. 38–59.
  11. Tul'chinskij G. L. Novyj sdvig gumanitarnoj paradigmy: gumanitarnost' protiv gumanizma // Otechestvennye tradicii gumanitarnogo znanija: Istorija i sovremennost'. SPb: SPbGIJeU, 2005. C. 3–11.
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Andrey FLIER

Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
Chief researcher, PhD, Full Professor.

Social Practice as Negotiation of Culture: From Everyday Rowdiness to Intellectual Subjectivism

History shows that people often violate and break with regulatory installation culture through a variety of types of domestic hooliganism and intellectual subjectivity which, as a rule, pursues the game and the representational goals. Cultural development follows the path of increasing liberalization of its ordering facilities. This, in turn also increases the level of social acceptability of different forms of inappropriate behavior and consciousness, transforming the phenomenon of the cultural extravagance of heresy within the social norm.

Key words: cultural program of social behavior and consciousness, hooliganism, subjectivity, cultural inadequacy


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  22. Astaf'eva O. N. Teorija samoorganizacii kak konceptual'noe osnovanie kul'turnoj politiki: problemy teoreticheskoj kul'turologii / O. N. Astaf'eva // Voprosy kul'turologii. 2006. №12.
  23. Freud S. Das Unbehangen in der Kultur. Wien: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, 1930 (Frejd Z. Nedovol'stvo kul'turoj [Jelektronnyj resurs] // Biblioteka Gumer — psihologija. URL: Buks/Psihol/Freid/ned_kult.php. )
  24. Bataille G. La Part maudite. Paris: Minuit, 1949 (Bataj Zh. Prokljataja chast'. / Zh. Bataj / M.: Ladomir, 2006.
  25. Bahtin M. M. Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaja kul'tura Srednevekov'ja i Renessansa. / M. M. Bahtin / M.: Hudozhestvennaja literatura, 1965
  26. Zygulski K. Swieto i kultura. Swieta i nowe. Rozwazania socjologa. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy Związków Zawodowych, 1981 (Zhigul'skij K. Prazdnik i kul'tura. Prazdniki starye i novye: razmyshlenija sociologa. / K. Zhigul'skij / M.: Progress, 1985)
  27. Petruhin V. Ja. «Prazdnik» v srednevekovoj Rusi / V. Ja. Petruhin // Odissej: Chelovek v istorii. M.: Nauka, 2005.
  28. Lorenz K. Z. Das sogenannte Böse zur Naturgeschichte der Aggression; Tinbergen N. Op. cit.; McFarland D. Op. cit.; Dol'nik V. R. Neposlushnoe ditja biosfery i dr.
  29. Dol'nik V. R. Zhizn' — razgadka pola ili pol — razgadka zhizni? / V. R. Dol'nik // Himija i zhizn'. 1995. №№ 9, 10, 11, 12; Pfaus J. G., Kippin T. E., Coria-Avila G. What Can Animal Models Tell Us About Human Sexual Response? // Annual Review of Sex Research, 14 (2003).
  30. Flier A. Ja. Vektor kul'turnoj jevoljucii / A. Ja. Flier // Observatorija kul'tury. 2011. № 5.
  31. Durkheim E. De la division du travail social. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1893 (Djurkgejm Je. O razdelenii obshhestvennogo truda. Metod sociologii. / Je. Djurkgejm/ M.: Nauka, 1991).
  32. Flier A. Ja. Ocherki teorii istoricheskoj dinamiki kul'tury.
  33. Astaf'eva O. N. Sinergeticheskij podhod k issledovaniju sociokul'turnyh processov: vozmozhnosti i predely. / O. N. Astaf'eva / M.: Izd-vo MGIDA, 2002.
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Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
Leading Researcher, PhD.

Historical Changes and the Issue of Identity: From the Perspective of Modern Cinema

During the course of historical changes a change in the leading types of social identity also occurs. Identification by profession recedes at the end of the 20th century because of certain socio-economic processes (the globalization of the labor market and resources, the decline in employment). At the same time, identification on other grounds becomes relevant. Human experience of changes is explored through the material of modern European (German) cinema.

Key words: identity, the basis for the identification, professional identity, historical changes, employment problems, European cinema, German modern cinema


  1. Bogatyrjova E.A. Zavershjon li «proekt» postmoderna?//Voprosy filosofii. 2009. № 8. S.56-65.
  2. Bogatyrjova E.A. Nemeckaja filosofija na rubezhe vekov: koncepcii iskusstva i kul'tury. M., 2004. S.8-9
  3. Habermas J. Erläuterungen zum Begriff des kommunikativen Handelns // Habermas J. Vorstudien und Ergänzungen zur Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt a. M., 1995. S.590
  4. Sheffler S. Immigracija i znachenie kul'tury // Prognozis. 2007. №1(9). S.84
  5. «Das Leben ist eine Baustelle», Germanija, 1996 g.
  6. "Good bye, Lenin!" Germanija, 2002 g.
  7. "Schultze gets the blues", Germanija,2003 g.
  8. «Sommer vorm Balkon», Germanija, 2005 g.
  9. «Du bist nicht allein», Germanija, 2007 g.
  10. «Mozart. Ich hätte München Ehre gemacht!», Germanija, 2006 g.
  11. «Was bleibt», Germanija, 2012 g.
  12. «Der Mond und andere Liebhaber», Germanija, 2008 g.
  13. «Die Friseure», Germanija, 2010 g.
  14. «Barbara», Germanija, 2012 g.
  15. «Lichter», Germanija, 2003 g.
  16. «Kurz und schmerzlos», Germanija, 1998 g.
  17. «Solino», Germanija, 2002 g.
  18. «Gegen die Wand», Germanija/Turcija, 2004 g.
  19. «Crossing the Bridge — The Sound of Istanbul", Germanija 2005 g.
  20. "Tor zum Himmel", Germanija, 2003 g.
  21. "Absurdistan", Germanija, 2008 g.
  22. «Baikonur», Germanija, Rossija, Kazahstan, 2011 g.
  23. Sheffler S. Immigracija i znachenie kul'tury // Prognozis. 2007. №1(9). S.82.
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Russia, St. Peresburg.
St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) in Mathematical Physic.
Associate professor.

On the Way to the Fulfillment Space (on the Practices of Exposure and the Heuristics of Culture)

In this paper, we analyze the concept of "fulfillment space", as an on-going project of culture. The actualization of "fulfillment space" in personal research practices (notes, diaries, illuminating interpretations, etc) serves to objectify the heuristic challenges of the epoch. If one thinks of subjectiveness as some historically obtained capability, then one of its aims is to anticipate cultural dead ends.

Key words: diary, subjectiveness, fulfillment space, style of articulation, actualization, heuristics, poiesis


  1. Ben'jamin V. Sharl' Bodler. Pojet v jepohu zrelogo kapitalizma / V. Ben'jamin / Per. s nem. S. Romashko // Ben'jamin V. Maski vremeni. Jesse o kul'ture i literature / Sost. A. Belobratova. SPb.: Simpozium, 2004. S. 47–234;
  2. Bauman Z. Ot piligrima k turistu, ili kratkaja istorija identichnosti / Z. Bauman // Sociologicheskie progulki. Gorod pod nogami sociologa. [Jelektronnyj resurs] URL: http://www. urban-club. ru/?p=54
  3. Toporov V. N. Prostranstvo i tekst / V. N. Toporov // Tekst: semantika i struktura. M.: Nauka, 1983. C. 227–284.
  4. Alekseev A. N. Dramaticheskaja sociologija i sociologicheskaja autorefleksija. Tom 1. / A. N. Alekseev / SPb.: Norma, 2003. S. 30.
  5. Shifrin B. F. Golosa vo vremennyh pomeshhenijah. Opyty germenevtiki vnimanija. / B. F. Shifrin / SPb.: Russkaja kul'tura, 2013. S. 51–54. Dalee ssylki na jetu monografiju dajutsja v sokrashhennoj zapisi ( «Golosa», s. . . . )
  6. Goffman I. Analiz frejmov: Jesse ob organizacii povsednevnogo opyta / I. Goffman / Per. s angl. R. E. Bumagina, Ju. A. Danilova, A. D. Kovaleva, O. A. Oberemko pod red G. S. Batygina i L. A. Kozlovoj. M.: In-t sociologii RAN, 2004. 752 c.
  7. Lefevr A. Proizvodstvo prostranstva / A. Lefevr // Sociologicheskaja teorija: istorija, sovremennost', perspektivy. Al'manah zhurnala «Sociologicheskoe obozrenie». SPb, 2008. S. 158–164
  8. Burd'e P. Sociologija social'nogo prostranstva / P. Burd'e / Per. s fr.; otv. red. perevoda N. A. Shmatko. M.: Inst-t jeksperimental'noj sociologii; SPb.: Aleteja, 2007. S 49–63.
  9. Zimmel' G. Jekskurs o chuzhake / Per. s nem. A. F. Filippova // Sociologicheskaja teorija: istorija, sovremennost', perspektivy. Al'manah zhurnala «Sociologicheskoe obozrenie». SPb, 2008. s. 7–12.
  10. Shifrin B. F. Chelovecheskaja distancija: tri nabroska / B. F. Shifrin // Mixture verborum' 2010: telo i slovo. Filosofskij ezhegodnik. Pod obshh. red. S. A. Lishaeva. Samara: Samarskaja gumanit. akad., 2010. S. 189–206
  11. Ban'kovskaja S. P. Chuzhaki i granicy: k ponjatiju social'noj marginal'nosti / S. P. Ban'kovskaja // Sociologicheskaja teorija: istorija, sovremennost', perspektivy. Al'manah zhurnala «Sociologicheskoe obozrenie». SPb, 2008. S. 381–388.
  12. Fillippov A. F. Sociologija prostranstva. / A. F. Filippov/ SPb.: «Vladimir Dal'», 2008. — S. 82–86.
  13. Val'denfel's B. Svoja kul'tura i chuzhaja kul'tura. Paradoks nauki o «Chuzhom» / B. Val'denfel's // Logos. №6. 1996. S. 77–94.
  14. Serto M. de. Izobretenie povsednevnosti. 1. Iskusstvo delat' /M. de Serto / Per. s fr. D. Kalugina, N. Movninoj. Spb.: Izd-vo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2013. S. 39–52.
  15. Matjushin M. Opyt hudozhnika novoj mery / M. Matjushin //Semiotika i Avangard: Antologija /Pod obshh. red. Ju. S. Stepanova. M.: Akademicheskij proekt; Kul'tura, 2006, S. 484–502
  16. Povelihina A. Vozvrat k prirode. «Organicheskoe» napravlenie v russkom avangarde XX veka / A. Povelihina // Studia Slavica Finlandensia, Helsinki, 1999. Tomus XVI /1. S. 11–29.
  17. Shifrin B. F. «Prostranstvo ispolnenija» i sinestezis v postsimvolistskoj perspektive / B. F. Shifrin // Vestnik INZhJeKONa Serija «Gumanitarnye nauki». Vyp. 4 (55) 2012. C. 156–161.
  18. Pigrov K. S. Dnevnik: obshhenie s samim soboj v prostranstve total'noj kommunikacii / K. S. Pigrov // K. S. Pigrov. Shepot demona. — Spb.: Izd-vo S-Peterb. un-ta, 2007. S. 3–49.
  19. Alekseev A. N. Dramaticheskaja sociologija i sociologicheskaja autorefleksija. Tom 1 — SPb.: Norma, 2003. — 592 s.; Tom 2. — 480 s.
  20. Chebanov S. V. Lichnoe soobshhenie. Pol'zujas' sluchaem, vyrazhaju priznatel'nost' S. V. Chebanovu za obuzhdenie dannoj raboty.
  21. Glazychev V. L. Gorod bez granic. — M.: Territorija budushhego, 2011. — S. 88.
  22. Toro G. D. Vysshie zakony. M.: Respublika, 2001. — s. 364.
  23. Shifrin B. F. Gde-to tut, na okrainah diskursa. Variacii k jekologii nesushhestvennogo // Jo: Psihotvorec. Obuvatel'. Filozof.: Sb. statej (Ros. in-t kul'turologii). M., 2002, S. 156–161; «Golosa», S. 77–85.
  24. Delez Zh. Jempirizm i sub#ektivnost'. Kriticheskaja filosofija Kanta. Bergsonizm. Spinoza. M.: PERSJe, 2001. S. 232 234.
  25. S. V. Chebanov. Theoretical biology in Biocentrism // Lectures in theoretical biology. Tallinn: Valgus, 1988. P. 159–167
  26. Chebanov S. V. Teoreticheskaja biologija v biocentrizme: zamysel i realizacija // Holizm i zdorov'e (v pechati).
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Alexander LYUSY

Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research, Seniour Rearcher.
PhD in Cultural Science.

The Latest Frontier Guard: Refusal of the Knowledge of the Beginning and the End

Subject tension — a dualistic perspective of the idea of border. The border as a limit can promote the arrangement of the individual, define its place in the world, and can also limit it. The border of a house can be wrapped in the border of a prison — everything depends not on our relation to the house or the prison, but on our relation to the idea of the border. Modern borders serve not only as a function of determining our national identity, but can also be a tool in the formation of internal conflicts, producing individuals who choose to cross the borders. One such individual is the — researcher, in search of new experiences, or simply the desire to expand knowledge, and master new territories.

Key words: division, hierarchy, nomaden discourse, violator, semiosfer, cross-border region, identity


  1. Mahov A. E. «Est' chto-to, chto ne ljubit ograzhdenij»: biblejskaja doktrina granicy i ranneromanticheskij demonizm // Temnica i svoboda v hudozhestvennom mire romantizma. M., 2002. S. 28.
  2. Mednis N. Sjuzhetnaja funkcija granicy v tragedii Pushkina «Boris Godunov» // Toronto Slavic Quarterly. № 27: http://www. utoronto. ca/tsq/27/mednis27. shtml
  3. Karamzin N. M. Istorija gosudarstva Rossijskogo: V 4 kn. M., 2001. Kn. 4. S. 232–233.
  4. Pushkin A. S. Polnoe sobr. soch.: V 10 t. M., Nauka, 1964. T. V. S. 247.
  5. Shtjol'ting Je. Social'noe znachenie granic // Kochujushhie granicy: sb. statej po materialam mezhdunarodnogo seminara (Narva, 12–16 nojabrja 1998 g. ) / Pod red. O. Brednikovoj, V. Voronkova. SPb., 1999. Trudy. Vyp. 7. S. 12.
  6. Mahov A. E. . «Est' chto-to, chto ne ljubit ograzhdenij». S. 38.
  7. Rorti R. Sluchajnost'. Ironija. Solidarnost'. M., 1996. S. 1996. S. 53.
  8. Mahov A. E. . «Est' chto-to, chto ne ljubit ograzhdenij». S. 49.
  9. Grigor'eva E. Ocherki po teorii i pragmatike reguljarnyh mehanizmov kul'tury. M., 2005 S. 182–183.
  10. Cvetaeva M. I. Sobr. soch.: v 7 t. M., 1994. T. 2. S. 6.
  11. Popkova M. D. Kul'tura XX veka: krizis samoidentichnosti i problema granic // Vestnik Cheljabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Filocofija, Sociologija, Kul'turologija. Vyp. 27. S. 44.
  12. Tlostanova M. V. Issledovanija pogranich'ja/VS pogranichnoe (so)znanie, myshlenie, tvorchestvo // Voprosy social'noj teorii. 2012. T. 6. S. 66.
  13. Koul H., Dzhons O. Geroj nashego vremeni // http://liva. com. ua/manning-martyr. html
  14. Nikolaevskij B. Istorija odnogo predatelja. Terroristy i politicheskaja policija. Berlin, 1932.
  15. Jancen V. Predatel'stvo kak problema individual'noj pamjati i istoricheskoj tradicii // Vestnik Russkoj Hristianskoj Gumanitarnoj Akademii. Tom 12. Vypusk 2. SPb., 2011. S. 242. Internet-resurs: http://www. ergojournal. ru/?p=149
  16. Bogatyreva E. D. Rassledovanie granicy ili znaki nichto: granica teksta // Granica i opyt granicy v hudozhestvennom jazyke: Materialy mezhdisciplinarnogo nauchnogo seminara (2001–2002 gg. ) i russko-nemeckoj nauch. konf. (g. Samara, 4–6 ijulja 2001 g. ). Samara, 2003. S. 56. Int. resurs: http://www. phil63. ru/rassledovanie-granitsy-ili-znaki-nichto-granitsa-teksta
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Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
Chief researcher. PhD in Philosophy, professor.

Gender Determination of Subject-Object relations: Reversion of Feminine/Masculine as a Power Relation in the (Post) Modern Interpretation of Culture

The article presents an analysis of subject-object relations from the point of view of gender determination. Over the centuries, the dominating role in the "Masculine/Feminine" opposition was that of the male, reflected in numerous cultural practices and in the space of representation. The cultural changes of the last decades — together with globalizaton, cultural pluralism, rehabilitation of the Other, the activization of the women's movement, as regards social and cultural practices, as well as theoretical reflection — has brought about a shift of roles in gender relations, up to the deconstruction of one of the basic binarisms of mankind. In the field of representation, this was expressed in the reversal of traditional roles of Man, as the subject of creativity and Woman, as its object or mediator. More and more women have become successful in fields that had long been considered the privileged territory of men. The spread of female authorship, in its turn, has also led to the reconsidering of many representational strategies and semantic fields of cultural texts considered literary classics. Reading such texts from a feminine point of view in many ways has served to deconstruct traditional figures and plots, presenting them as the objects of "feminine gaze" and postmodern irony. Two archetypal figures, still very popular in cultural production — Don Juan and Carmen — are discussed in the article. Their role in gendered cultural space as models of traditional and reversed Masculine/Feminine opposition is discussed. The analysis of stage representations of Don Juan and Carmen by a director personifying subjective gender construction has been carried out on the basis of the work of Francesca Zambello and her two productions: "Carmen" (2006) and "Don Giovanni" (2008). The article's соnclusion discusses the importance of the gender aspect relating to the importance of cultural production in understanding contemporary culture.

Key words: subject, object, gender, femininity, masculinity, power, culture, text, author's interpretation, opposition, binarism, deconstruction, representation


  1. Dvorkin A. Pornografija. Muzhchiny obladajut zhenshhinami / A. Dvorkin // Vvedenie v gendernye issledovanija. Ch. 2 Hrestomatija / pod red. S. Zherebkina. Har'kov: HCGI, 2001; SPb: Aletejja, 2001. S. 201.
  2. Connell B. Hegemonic Masculinity. In: Gender. / B. Connell // A Sociological Reader. L. —NY, 2002. P. 60.
  3. Gilbert P. Human Relationships. / P. Gilbert / Blackwell: Oxford UK-Cambridge USA, 1991. P. 52.
  4. Nicshe F. Ecce Homo / F. Nicshe // Sochinenija v 2 tomah. T. 2. M.:»Mysl'», 1990. S. 727
  5. Nicshe F. Veselaja nauka// F. Nicshe / Sochinenija. T. 1. M.: «Mysl'», 1990. S. 526
  6. Nicshe F. Chelovecheskoe / F. Nicshe // Sochinenija. T. 1. S. 435.
  7. Eagleton T. Literary Theory. / T. Eaglton / Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1996. P. 159.
  8. Luhman N. Love as Passion. /N. Luhman / Cambridge-Oxford, 1986. P. 42.
  9. Shapinskaja E. N. Kul'turologicheskij diskurs posle postmodernizma / E. N. Shapinskaja // Observatorija kul'tury, №6, 2010.
  10. Huyssen A. Mapping the Postmodern. / A. Huyssen // Culture and Society. Contemporary debates. Cambridge, 1995. P. 355.
  11. Turner V. Liminality and Community. / V. Turner // Culture and Society. P. 147
  12. Bodrijjar Zh. Prozrachnost' zla. / Zh. Bodrijjar / M. . 2009. S. 8.
  13. Harvey D. The Condition of Postmodernity. / D. Hervey / Oxford, UK, Cambridge, USA: Blackwell, 1992. P. 355.
  14. Hutcheon, L. The Politics of Postmodernism. / L. Hutcheon / L. and NY: Routledge, 1989. P. 39.
  15. Shapinskaja E. N. Ljubov' kak vlastnoe otnoshenie: reprezentacija v kul'turnyh kontekstah i social'nyh diskursah. / E. N. Shapinskaja // Semiozis i kul'tura: intellektual'nye praktiki. Syktyvkar: Komi pedinstitut, 2013. S. 253.
  16. Giddens Je. Transformacija intimnosti. Seksual'nost', ljubov' i jerotizm v sovremennyh obshhestvah. / Je. Giddens / M. —SPb, 2004. S. 103.
  17. Lorber J. Paradoxes of Gender. / J. Lorber / New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. P. 103.
  18. McClary S. Feminine endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. / S. McClary / Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991 P. 64.
  19. Clement C. Opera, or the Undoing of Women. / S. Clement / Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988. P. 48.
  20. Shapinskaja E. N. Diskurs ljubvi. / E. N. Shapinskaja / M.: Prometej, 1998. S. 200.
  21. Shapinskaja E. N. Opera v kontekste postkul'tury: igry s klassikoj i konflikt intepretacij / E. N. Shapinskaja // Kul'tura i iskusstvo, №3 (15), 2013. Ss. 255–267.
  22. URL:
  23. Shapinskaja E. N. N Viva la liberta: svobodnaja lichnost' na prostranstvah postkul'tury [Jelektronnyj resurs] / E. N. Shapinskaja // IV Rossijskij kul'turologicheskij kongress s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem «Lichnost' v prostranstve kul'tury», Sankt-Peterburg, 29–31 oktjabrja 2013 goda. Tezisy i vystuplenija uchastnikov. SPb: Jejdos, 2013. URL:
  24. Siobhan Murphy, Metro, 10 September 2008. URL:–9-roh-london-don-giovanni/
  25. Hutcheon L. Op. cit. P. 7.
  26. Hutcheon L. Op. cit. P. 7.
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Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research.
Head of department. PhD in philosophy, senior lecturer.

Gender inequality: The Discourse of Desire vs. the Narrative of Temptation

In the History of Culture, there are periods when the clothes of the different sexes were very similar. E. Wilson notes that up until the end of the 15th century, fashion was absurd, and from a distance men and women were indistinguishable. L. Svendsen argues that it was only in the 17th centurywhen the idea that men and women's bodies are similar suddenly changed. However, in the Middle Ages as well as in the early modern period, gender inequality existed. Moreover, this inequality created a clear system of meanings, which was very strongly-rooted in the social imagination. This gender inequality can be seen in the extreme modes of dress, the transformations of body, and in the specific gender discourses, which created norms and sthereotypes of femininity and masculinity. The topic of the article is image, which is seen as a visual narrative. The narrative of clothes exists in the cadres of cultural norms and stereotypes. It caters to the representation of individuality and the realization of subjectivity. It is also the narrative of gender communication, because fashion codes can be interpreted not only as modes of representation, but also as modes of communication, which the subject translates to the socium. Thus, clothes, fashion and image are different forms of the realization of subjectivity.

Key words: gender, images of masculinity and femininity, fashion, desire, temptation, image


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  3. Durand G. Les structures anthropologiques de l'imaginaire. Paris: Dunod, 1996.
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  7. Sm.: Stil V. Tufli i jeroticheskoe voobrazhenie. / per. s angl. // Teorija mody. Vypusk 25, osen' 2012. S. 183–202.
  8. Vianello A. Blagorodnaja dama ili kurtizanka? Venecianskie chopiny v jepohu Renessansa. / per. s it. // Teorija mody. Vypusk 25, osen' 2012. S. 112–133.
  9. Malabarba I. Ai piedi di Donna. Milan. 1991. Cit. po Vianello A. Blagorodnaja dama ili kurtizanka? S. 117.
  10. Stil V. Tufli i jeroticheskoe voobrazhenie; Wright L. Objectiving gender: the Stiletto Heel. // M. Barnard, ed. Fashion Theory. A Reader. Pp. 197 207.
  11. Wright L. Objectiving gender: the Stiletto Heel. R. 198.
  12. Stil V. Korset. / per. s angl. M. Malikovoj. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2010. 272 s. S. 128–129.
  13. Bodrijjar Zh. K kritike politicheskoj jekonomii znaka. M.: Akademicheskij proekt, 2007. S. 56.
  14. Uilson Je. Oblachennye v mechty: moda i sovremennost'. / per. s angl. E. Demidovoj, E. Kardash, E. Ljaminoj. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2012. 288 s. S. 94.
  15. Kolinz R. Vvedenie v neochevidnuju sociologiju. // Antologija gendernoj teorii. Minsk.: Propilei, 2000. s. 114 141. S. 140.
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  18. Bodrijjar Zh. Soblazn. / Zh. Bodrijjar/ per. s fr. A. Garadzhi. M.: Ad Marginem, 2000. S. 31.
  19. Bodrijjar Zh. Simvolicheskij obmen i smert'. / Zh. Bodrijjar. / per. s fr. S. N. Zenkina. M.: Dobrosvet, 2000. 387 s. S. 184.
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  21. Vajnshtejn O. Dendi: moda, literatura, stil' zhizni. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2006. S. 108–109.
  22. Harvi D. Ljudi v chernom. / D. Harvi / per. s angl. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. S. 80, 152, 162.
  23. Chodorou N. Vosproizvodstvo materinstva. / N. Chodorou // Antologija gendernoj teorii. Minsk.: Propilei, 2000. s. 29 77.
  24. Messner M. Maskulinnost' i professional'nyj sport. / M. Messner // Antologija gendernoj teorii. S. 226.
  25. Sedgwik E. K. Between men: English Litterature and Male Desire. NY., 1985.
  26. Mort F. Culture if Consunption: Masculinities and Social Space in Late Twentieth-century Britain. London, 1996.
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Russia, Moscow.
Russian State University for the Humanities.
Associate professor, Ph. D. in Culture Research.

"Vision" and "Blindness" — the Source of Creativity
a Short Reflection on the Philosophical Basis of the Modern European Concept of "the Unconscious"

The article discusses the genesis of the modern European concept of "the unconscious". The birth of this concept is interpreted in the context that emerged in the 18th century: The problem of the "definition" of an individual source of creative energy, whose role did not match with any prior role common to God or Man's eternal truths, such as those described by Descartes, N. Malebranche, and Spinoza. In addition, it did not fit the "reflection" of John Locke, or Newton's understanding of the mind, as the ability to analyze the fundamental and re-synthesize pre-data facts. Solving this problem, the French Enlightenment (E.B. de Condillac) put forward the idea of the source of human creativity as "the unconscious", deprived of any entelehiynosti, teleological understanding — that is, "blind" and chaotic. Thus, Condillac became the founder of the biologization tradition, embracing "the unconscious" with its Darwinian-Spencer, pragmatist, Freudian, post-structuralist, etc. branches, anticipating the concept of William James's "really real" and "stream of consciousness". However, a few decades before the publication of Condillac and his thoughts about the "blind" origins of creative energy, in 1726, the author D. Vico published the book "Foundations of the new science of the general nature of nations", which presents a very different interpretation of the origin of individual creativity. In this book, D. Vico outlines the semantic perspective, which later gave rise to the horizon concept of the "collective unconscious" and all of the versions of its entelehiynosti.

Key words: philosophy, the unconscious, the collective unconscious, creativity, intelligence


  1. Zav'jalov S. Teorija poznanija Dzhona Lokka. // URL: http www.
  2. Kassirer Je. Filosofija Prosveshhenija. / Je. Kassirer / M. SPb., Centr gumanitarnyh iniciativ. 2013. S. 119.
  3. Mudragej N.S. Filosofija istorii Dzh. Viko / N.S. Mudragej // Voprosy filosofii. №1. 1996. S. 102.
  4. Rikkert G. Filosofija zhizni. / G. Rikkert / Minsk, Harvest, M., Ast, 2000. S. 123.
  5. Gajdenko P.P. Proryv k transcendentnomu. Novaja ontologija HH veka. / P.P. Gajdenko / M., Respublika, 1997. S. 81.
  6. Hajdegger M. Issledovatel'skaja rabota Vil'gel'ma Dil'teja i bor'ba za istoricheskoe mirovozzrenie v nashi dni. Desjat' dokladov, prochitannyh v Kassele (1925) / M. Hajdegger // Voprosy filosofii. 1995. № 11. S. 133.
  7. Kozellek R. K voprosu o temporal'nyh strukturah v istoricheskom razvitii ponjatij. / R. Kozellek // Istorija ponjatij, istorija diskursa, istorija metafor. M., Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2010. S. 28.
  8. Gurevich A. Ja. Istorija v chelovecheskom izmerenii (razmyshlenija medievista) /A.Ja. Gurevich // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 2005. № 75. URL:
  9. Tajlor Je. B.Pervobytnaja kul'tura. / Je.B. Tajlor / M.: Izdatel'stvo politicheskoj literatury, 1989. S. 18.
  10. «Estestvennaja ustanovka» soznanija — ponjatie fenomenologii Je. Gusserlja.
  11. Gasparov M. L. Zanimatel'naja Grecija. / M.L. Gasparov / M., Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 1996. S. 104.
  12. Kassirer Je. Ukaz. soch. S. 123.
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Russia, Saint Petersburg.
Saint Petersburg State University.
Associate Professor of the Department of social philosophy and philosophy of history.
Associate Professor, PhD.

"Subjectivation" as Subjection

The article discusses the relation between the close, but not synonymous, terms "subjectivation" — the becoming of a subject; "subjection" — subordination, "subjectivity" — the inner reality vs. the ideal reality;, and the "subject" — the linguistic condition of individual existence. The article's analysis shows that there are various philosophical discourses about the subjectivity of existence, namely: subjectivity as subjection or subordination; subjectivity as the inter-subjectivity of desires; subjectivity as mastery over oneself or control of the mind over sensuality and subjectivity, as sovereign or dominant. The relationship of the process of subjectivation with regard to issues of power and desire can be traced in all its different thematic variants. The article examines the distinction between the concept of the subject in classical European metaphysics and the structural or semiotic ideas of Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Julia Kristeva, Louis Althusser and Rene Girard, as they relate to the process of the subject's formation. In modern philosophy, the subject transforms from an ideal substance and immutable essence into the formation of dynamic, bodily, fragmentation, associated with the structures of language.

Key words: subject, subjection, subjectivity, domination, subordination, desire, sexuality, morality, conscience, guilt, identity, recognition, mimesis


  1. Hajdegger M. Vremja i bytie. / M. Hajdegger / M.: Respublika. S. 118.
  2. Fuko M. Ispol'zovanie udovol'stvij. Istorija seksual'nosti. T. 2. / M. Fuko / SPb: Akademicheskij proekt, 2004. S. 231.
  3. Fuko M. Ispol'zovanie udovol'stvij. S. 110.
  4. Kin'jar P. Seks i strah. / P. Kin'jar / M.: Tekst, 2000. S. 15.
  5. Batler Dzh. Psihika vlasti: teorii sub#ekcii. / Dzh. Batler / SPb.: Aletejja, 2002. S. 15.
  6. Spinoza B. Izbr. Proizv. V 2-h t. T. 1. / B. Spinoza / M.: Gospolitizdat, 1957. S. 462.
  7. Zhirar R. Kritika iz podpol'ja. / R. Zhirar / M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2012. S. 11.
  8. Bodrijjar Zh. Simvolicheskij obmen i smert'. / Zh. Bodrijjar / M.: Dobrosvet, 2000. S. 146.
  9. Kristeva Ju. Sily uzhasa: jesse ob otvrashhenii. / Ju. Kristeva / SPb: Aletejja, 2003. S. 105.
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Cultural Theory


Italija, Rim.
Universitet La Sapienca.


The treatise "Profanazioni" by D. Agamben is a chain of informal philosophical essays written in a spoken and living language and implicitly related to one another by a tone of protest against the modern world view. The settled consciousness of the European annoyed Agamben. He offers an alternative to all that seems unshakable, beginning with the addressing of pagan gods instead of Christianity and ending with the offer of a more creative look at the act of defecation. He encourages us to get rid of habits and to reject definitions in order to once again enter into the world, without knowing anything about it, without using words (that predispose being), but by using gestures only. In a way, he brings us closer to the animals or to Adam and Eve in Paradise, when he protests against knowledge andproperty. Yet, Agamben well understands that a person cannot go backwards, even by forgetting words and rejecting property. Indeed, the forgotten is really the most important thing for Agamben. We have to exist as if we have forgotten, to be a reflection in a mirror; and only the most casual and insignificant gesture will express us in the end. It is all impossible to affirm, and easy to parody. The skill, the ministry has become the fake dispositif. All that remains is profanation and desecration. In this edition, we publish an essay, entitled "Genius" taken fromAgamben's book "Profanazioni". The book (translated by K.Tokmachev and edited by B. Saburov) will be released in its entirety in early 2014 by the Hylaea Publishing House.

Key words: profanity, gesture, dispositive, the genius, the subject, impersonal

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Concepts of Culture


Russia, Moskow.
Humanity Institute for TV and Radio.

Subject Zero and the Problem of Artificial Intelligence

At the center of the issue is the problem of reality. If reality does not exist, this leads to contradictions, such as: if reality does not exist, then a round square is possible. If a round square is possible, then everything is possible. If I assert that I simply seem to exist, then elementary particles are also absent and this wоrd is also absent. If I say that elementary particles are simply strange objects, which neither exist nor don't exist by definition, this is simply an intellectual trick.
The partial answer to this paradox reflects the standing problem of artificial intelligence, about which we can say that it is possible, if and only if, in its construction we take into account the dynamic aspect. In order to create artificial intelligence, we need to create a program which will provide it with the birth trauma, paranoid and schizoid positions, the mirror stage, and the Oedipal complex so that it becomes an oral, anal and phallic-narcissistic perversion. Only then will it be possible for artificial intelligence to really be similar to its creator — Man.

Key words: reality, existence, round square, hallucination, strange object, paradox, artificial intellect, trauma of birth, stage of mirror, Oedipal complex

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USA, Texas.
Philosophy and Humanities at Texas A&M University.
Distinguished Professor.

Keeper of Things

To keep things is to distance ontological loneliness. Thereby, I am a Keeper of Things, so as to thicken the irretrievably finite fabric of my life, right smack up against the dolorous face of my own death. Consider it this way: as a gift to those who trod behind me, progeny at large, just as I have been enriched by those who left things for me.
And that is the backstory of the human journey. Herein lies the spiritual and pedagogical importance of the reverential preservation of the past. So, eat your experiences while you can and keep your things safe from Texas turkey vultures and the noxious purveyors of obsolescence. In short, all that you leave is but a mere trace; that is, if you have left your things. Otherwise, as they say, what happened to Malone? Nothing, not even a trace.

Key words: past, present, sacred, cultural danger, obsolescence


  1. Wislawa Szymborska, "The Onion," View with a Grain of Sand — Selected Poems (New York: Harcourt,Inc., 1976, 1995) p 120–121.
  2. Samuel Beckett concludes Malone Dies (New York: Grove Press, 1956) p.
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Cultural Experience

Kseniya KUXO

St. Petersburg, Russia.
St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design.
Department of Design's History and Theory and Media Communications.
PhD, Associate Professor.

Regular Analgesia: Social Reception of Early Anesthetic Discoveries

Тhe excursion into the history of social adaptation of the early achievements of scientific anesthesiology is presented in the article. Using the genealogical method, the author defines the cultural factors that predetermined the beginning of the distribution of regular analgesia. A review of the collective reactions to the anesthetic discoveries of the first half of the 19th century results in a sketch of analgesia's existential influence on European culture.

Key words: cultural disposal of pain, collective sensuality, anesthetics,, ontological damage


  1. Smith G.B., Hirsch N.P. Gardner Quincy Colton: pioneer of nitrous oxide anesthesia / G.B. Smith, N.P. Hirsch // Anesthesia & Analgesia, March 1991.
  2. Torval'd Ju. Vek hirurgov. / Ju. Torval'd / M.: «Prospekt», 2011. S. 45–46.
  3. M. Fridman, D, Fridman / M.: KoLibri, Azbuka-Attikus, 2012. S. 188.
  4. Judin S. S. Obrazy proshlogo v razvitii hirurgicheskogo obezbolivanija // S. S. Judin. Voprosy obezbolivanija v hirurgii. M.: Medgiz. 1960. S. 514–515.
  5. Petrov G. S. Apostoly trezvosti. / G.S. Petrov / SPb., 1903.
  6. Dejvenport-Hajns R. V poiskah zabvenija. Vsemirnaja istorija narkotikov 1500-2000. / R. Dejvenport-Hajns / M.: AST, 2004. S. 74.
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Art Theory

Andrzej PITRUS

Poland, Krakow.
Jagiellonian University, Professor.

No Longer Transhuman: Handmade Machines by Paul Granjon

The article discusses the projects of Paul Granjon — a French-born artist working in Wales. His works deal with technology and comment on various aspects of hi-tech; yet, use low-tech bricolage to express the artist's ideas. The author focuses on the most important works: objects, low-tech machines, performances and conceptual pieces. The art of Paul Granjon is presented as a fresh, funny and innovative approach to the question of how technology shapes people's lives and influences their everyday decisions. Prof. Andrzej Pitrus compares works by Granjon to some forgotten ideas of Marshall McLuhan.

Key words: Paul Granjon, media art, subversive art, performance


  1. Bruno Latour, Aramis or The Love of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, & London, England: Harvard University Press 1996, p. viii.
  2. Cécile Lafontaine, L'empire Cybernétique, Paris: Seuil 2004.
  3. Paul Granjon, Performing with machines and machines that perform, "International Journal of Performance Arts and Digital Media" 2008, no. 4, p. 45.
  4. Granjon, op.cit., p. 48.
  5. L. R. Rutsky, High Techne. Art and Technology from the Machine Aesthetic to the Posthuman, Minneapolis — London: University of Minnesota Press, p. 129.
  6. 'Playboy' Interview: Marshall McLuhan, 'Playboy' (March 1969), p. 64.
  7. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media. The Extensions of Man, London: Mit Press 1994, p. 53. First published in 1964.
  8. Granjon, op.cit., p. 56.
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Art History


Russia, Moscow.
National Research University Higher School of Economics.
PhD in Philosophy, Full Professor.

Russian Composers' School in the Context of European Culture: The Subject of Creativity and its Borders

The Russian composers' school and Russian music in general — the historical artistic-aesthetic phenomenon — vividly reflects the image of the national culture. Glinka and Tchaikovsky are "two peaks" of Russian music. The works of these Russian geniuses brought world recognition to national music. The article considers the problem of a cultural "border" between Russian and European musical traditions, the creative self-determination of Russian authors in the dialogue with European composers' schools and artistic styles, and Glinka — the founder of the national school of composers.

Key words: composer, national school, creative experience, dialogue, border, artistic identity, musical traditions, innovation, continuity, cultural memory, self-determination


  1. Bahtin M. M. Jestetika slovesnogo tvorchestva. / M. M. Bahtin / M.: Iskusstvo, 1979. S. 331.
  2. Druskin M. Ocherki, stat'i, zametki. / M. Druskin / L.: Sovetskij kompozitor, 1987. S. 207.
  3. Lotman Ju. M. Semiosfera. / Ju.M. Lotman / SPb.: Iskusstvo-SPB, 2004. S. 265.
  4. Rozanov A. M. M. I. Glinka: Al'bom. / A. M. Rozanov / M.: Iskusstvo, 1987. S. 72.
  5. Asaf'ev B. V. Glinka. / B.V. Asaf'ev / M.: Muzgiz, 1950. S. 41.
  6. Averincev S. Sobranie sochinenij. Svjaz' vremen. / S. Averincev / Kiev: DUH I LITERA, 2005. S. 341.
  7. Chajkovskij P.I. Dnevniki. / P.I. Chajkovskij / M., Ekaterinburg: U-Faktorija, 2000. S. 201-202.
  8. Rimskij-Korsakov N.A. Letopis' moej muzykal'noj zhizni. / N.A. Rimskij-Korsakov / M.: Soglasie, 2004. S. 329.
  9. Vospominanija o Rahmaninove: v 2 t. T. 2. M.: Muzyka, 1988. S. 94.
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Visual Studies


Russia, Moscow.
Multimedia Complex of Actual Arts.
Master in Cultural Studies.

"The Optical Unconscious": Photography Theory in Gunter Grass's Book "The Box"

The article explores the meanings of photography as presented in the contemporary German writer and Nobel Prize winner, Günter Grass's book "The Box — Tales from the Darkroom". The book appears as both an autobiography and a work of fiction at the same time; thus, there is an inherent tension between the issues of the documentary and the imaginary.
In this text, the subject of photography is vested with the ability to display the future, the past (including secret and hidden events), and the imaginary. Such conceptions about the photographic image's capabilities to capture the "invisible" intersect with works on photography theory. Potential functions of photography can also be described through the concept of the "optical-unconscious", referring to Walter Benjamin's work "A Brief History of Photography".
Special attention is given to how the text represents the "invisible", that which is not shown, but is articulated and even "voiced" because of the structure of the text written in the genre of conversation. As a result, "The Box" is a complex text that includes the inversion of traditional meanings of photography and literature. The photographic image is presented by means of the "imaginary", and the word — both printed and verbal — is responsible for the "documenting" and furthermore devoted to bringing this meaning back to the image. At the same time, "The Box" is a text with wide research potential, comparable to the basic texts on photography theory.

Key words: Walter Benjamin, Gunter Grass, photography and literature, autobiography, invisible, meanings of reality, meanings of the imaginary, optical-unconscious, and the "voice" of the text


  1. Grass G. Fotokamera. Istorii iz temnoj komnaty / G. Grass / per. s nem. B. Hlebnikova. Posleslovie B. Hlebnikova. M.: AST: Astrel': CORPUS, 2009. 288 s.
  2. Petrovskaja E. V. Foto(bio)grafija: k postanovke problemy / E. V. Petrovskaja // Avto-bio-grafija. K voprosu o metode. Tetradi po analiticheskoj antropologii. №1 / Pod red. V. A. Podorogi. M.: «Logos», 2001. S. 304.
  3. Petrovskaja E. Obraz i vizual'noe / Petrovskaja E. // Ee zhe. Petrovskaja E. Bezymjannye soobshhestva. M.: OOO «Falanster», 2012. S. 135–147.
  4. Petrovskaja E. Iskusstvo kak fotografija / Petrovskaja E. // Petrovskaja E. // Ee zhe. Bezymjannye soobshhestva. M.: OOO «Falanster», 2012. S. 242
  5. Ben'jamin V. Kratkaja istorija fotografija / V. Ben'jamin // Ben'jamin V. Ego zhe. Uchenie o podobii. Mediajesteticheskie proizvedenija. Sb. statej. M.: RGGU, 2012. S. 113
  6. Bart R. Camera Lucida. Kommentarij k fotografii / R. Bart / per. s fr., poslesl. i komment. Mihaila Ryklina. M.: OOO «Ad Marginem Press», 2011. S. 169.
  7. Trigg Dilan. Psihoanaliz ruin / D. Trigg /// Neprikosnovennyj zapas №89 (3/2013) M.: NLO, 2013.
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France, Paris.
University Paris 8, Vincennes in Saint-Denis.
Chair of the French Literature and French Language.
Laboratory "Research on aesthetic plurality".
PhD student.

Edmond and Jules de Goncourt. Between Realism and Photography: In Search of Visual Literature

Focusing on the opinion of two French writers — realists of the 19th century, the brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt — this research reflects an attempt to characterize the perception of photography during its most unstable period of existence, between 1850 and 1890, when the first primitive fascination with this new process had already disappeared, but it had not yet become a mass bourgeois product.
Torn between disdain for the creation of a mechanical image and an interest in the mystical side of photography, the Goncourts derive a certain formula for this new art, questioning more than anyone else the aesthetics of realism, in visual arts as in literature.
This article mainly analyzes the contradiction between the realism present in literature and the realism reflected in photography, when the Goncourts' desire to avoid a "literature daguerreotype", or a fixed descriptiveness, in a paradoxical way make them adopt visual methods of expression that are intrinsic only to the art of photography. Founded on extracts from an autobiographical diary of the brothers, Journal des Goncourt, and on the introduction to the novel Germinie Lacerteux, this article proposes, on the one hand, a panorama of dépoetisation of photography in the eyes of the writers and, on the other hand, an analysis of the influence of the latter on their style and writing. Finally, it proposes a reflection on whether or not the invention of the daguerreotype was the main cause of the emergence of realism in the arts.

Key words: photography, novel, realism, mimesis, delectation, clinic, E. de Goncourt, J. de Goncourt, J. Champfleury, the visual, metaphor, memory


  1. Gonkur Je. de, Gonkur Zh. de Dnevnik: Zapiski o literaturnoj zhizni. Izbrannye stranicy. V 2t. / Je. De Gonkur, Zh. De Gonkur / M. : Hudozhestvennaja literatura, 1964. T. 1. S. 136.
  2. Baudelaire Ch. Œuvres complètes, t. II, / Ch. Baudelaire / Paris : Gallimard, 1976. S. 617. Zdes' i dalee perevod citat — K. Fesenko.
  3. Goncourt E. de, J. de. Journal. Mémoires de la vie littéraire. / E. et J. de. Goncourt / Paris: Charpentier, 1891. T. I. S. 394-395. Zdes' i dalee perevod citat — K. Fesenko.
  4. Tam zhe. S. 1072.
  5. Champfleury J. Champfleury, George Sand. Correspondance, / J. Champfleury / Paris: Slatkine Reprints, 1991. S. 34. Zdes' i dalee perevod citat K. Fesenko.
  6. Gonkur Je. de, Gonkur Zh. de. Zhermini Laserte. Brat'ja Zemganno. Aktrisa Fosten. / Je. de Gonkur, Zh. de Gonkur / M. : Hudozhestvennaja literatura, 1972. S. 27.
  7. Auerbach E. Mimesis. / E. Auerbach / Paris: Gallimard, 2010. S. 498-499. Perevod citat — K. Fesenko.
  8. Goncourt E. de, J. de. Journal. Mémoires de la vie littéraire. T. III. S. 625.
  9. Hamon Ph. Imageries. Littérature et image au XIXe siècle. / Ph. Hamon / Paris: Macula, 2001. S. 349. Perevod citat K. Fesenko.
  10. Rubin J. H. Nadar 55 / J. H. Rubin / Paris: Phaidon, 2001. S. 39. Perevod citat K. Fesenko.
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Ekaterina KALININA

Russia, Moscow.
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Philology.
Department of discourse and communication studies.
Lecturer, PhD.

Photography as a Metaphor for Writing: Writer-Photographer in Marcel Proust's Time Regained

"À la recherche du temps perdu" (In Search of Lost Time) by Marcel Proust is a book about a book being born and a writer establishing himself; a reflection on creativity, the creator and creation. Working these topics out, the author often resorts to the photographic approach: photography is related to both the novel's temporal and spatial frameworks, as well as to the writer's reflection of the writing itself. In this article, a number of photographic references are raised for analysis from the final part of the novel — the article describes how the steps of an artist on his way to creating a literary piece are shown in the novel (these steps are labeled by Proust with photographic terms; and the process of creation itself is compared to that of creating a photograph). The article also speculates on how the images that constitute the foundation of a work of art are represented in Le Temps Retrouvé (Time Regained) — those very images that become an end point of the writer's journey and the very reason why he took it. These are recollections and images which, in the novel, are shaped into photographic prints. By reasoning about these prints' impact on the reader/spectator and the creative process, Proust is — long before Camera Lucida by Roland Barthes sees the light — working with categories that are to be named studium and afterwards, punctum. Another issue discussed in this article is the involvement of photography in shaping the novel's temporal framework.

Key words: photography, writing, novel, writer-photographer, gaze, memory, reminiscence, photographic metaphor, Marcel Prous


  1. Prust M. Obretennoe vremja. / M. Prust / M.: Amfora, 2007. S. 267–269.
  2. Brassaï. Marcel Proust sous l'emprise de la photographie. / Brassaï / Paris: Gallimard, 1997. P. 173.
  3. Bart R. Camera lucida. Kommentarij k fotografii. / R. Bart / M.: Ad Marginem, 1997. C. 115.
  4. Delez Zh. Marsel' Prust i znaki. / Zh. Delez / SPb: Astejja, 1999. S. 85.
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Book Reviews


Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research. Researcher.
Saint-Petersburg State University of Technology and Design.
Institute of Business Communication. PhD, Senior lecturer.

Poetics of Invention

The article discusses the book by Michel de Certeau, entitled "The Practice of Everyday Life" in the context of contemporary media theory and practices of tactical media. The reviewed book has had a great influence on the occurrence of such artistic and political practices as tactical media. Tactical media and similar practices expand the perspective of Media activism and the conditions of consumption of cultural products, which are the practical application of media theories oriented toward a pragmatic understanding of the media as a practice. The author develops genealogical research-related tactical media and approves the relevance of de Certeau's ideas in relation to their current state and the practices of resistance, in general.

Key words: Michel de Certeau, practices, strategies and tactics, invention, resistance, tactical media, analysis of everyday life


  1. Serto M. de Izobretenie povsednevnosti. 1. Iskusstvo delat' / M. de Serto /per. s fr. D. Kalugina, N. Movninoj. SPb.: Izd-vo Evropejskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2013. S. 42–43.
  2. Critical Art Ensemble, Digital Resistance: Explorations in Tactical Media. New York: Autonomedia, 2001. p. 6–9.
  3. Raley R. Tactical Media / R. Raley / Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 2009. P. 29.
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К проблеме наездницы русского постмодернизма

Sunday, 22 September 2013 | Olga Kirillova
Посвящается В. Л. Рабиновичу Насмерть загоню? Не бойся — ты же, брат, не Брут: Смерть мала и ненадолго, Цезарь...
Comment: 1

Рецензия на книгу: Попова Д.Л Сакральная семиосфера северного города. - Архангельск, 2015

Saturday, 28 October 2017 | Alexander Lyusiy
Сакральная семиосфера северного города: монография/Д.Л.Попова; М-во образования и науки Российской Федер,...
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Арзрум, да не тот. Империобол как предчувствие футболистической революции

Tuesday, 26 June 2012 | Alexander Lyusiy
В основе материала — выступление автора на Международном конгрессе «Россия и Польша: память...
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Reminder about Humbert

Thursday, 05 April 2012 | Alexander Lyusiy
There are no translations available yet.
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There are no translations available yet

Friday, 01 July 2011 | Irina Sokolova
There are no translations available yet
Comments: 0

Oil — a metaphor for culture

Tuesday, 15 November 2011 | Anna Rileva
There are no translations available yet
Comments: 2

The Chronotope of Illustrated Magazine

Friday, 14 January 2011 | Margarita Gudova
The article deals with the industry glossy magazines as an agent of modernization of consciousness and the transition from the patriarchal and industrial models to the identification of...
Comments: 3

There are no translations available yet

Tuesday, 15 November 2011 | Alexey Krivolap
There are no translations available yet
Comment: 1